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Full text of "Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce"

SUPPLEMENT TO 



COMMERCE REPORTS 

D.-VILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS 

ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 




lis 



nuai ^)eries 




No. 52e 



August 21, 1917 



CHINA/ 
AMOY. 

By Consul Clarence E. Gauss. 

War prices for foreign imports, advanced freight rates, scarcity 
of tonnage, and the high silver exchange prevailing dining most of 
the year and reducing the remittances from Amoy Chinese abroad, 
upon which this district is largely dependent, seriously restricted 
the commerce of Amoy in 1916. 

In United States currency the gross value of the trade of the port 
shows a gain in 1916 of more than $2,000,000 over 1915, representing 
increases of 65 per cent in foreign imports, 5 per cent in imports of 
Chinese products, and 30 per cent in exports of Chinese ])roducts of 
local origin ; but in Chinese currency the customs stati.'^tics show a 
decrease of 3,000,000 Haikwan taels (approximately $2,48-t,900) 
from 1915. 

Summary of Maritime Customs Statistics. 

The following tabic summarizes the import and export trade of 
Amoy for the past two years, the figures being from the Chinese 
Maritime Customs : 



Imports and exports. 


1915 


1916 


Imports and exports. 


1915 


1916 


Imports of foreign goods: 
From foreign countries 

and Hongkong 

From Chinese ports 


$5,615,153 
3^1,972 


$7,088,880 
285, 400 


Reexports of Chinese prod- 
ucts: 
To foreign countries 

and Hongkong 

To Chinese ports 

Total Chinese reex- 


$193, 192 
18, 834 


$259, 002 
25,487 


Total foreign imports 


5,937,125 


7,374.280 


212, 026 






272, 552 
245, 140 


338, 016 
294, 669 


284,4.89 


Reexports of foreign goods: 
To foreign countries 


Nct total Chinese 




4,976,519 


5,084,161 


and Hongkong 


Exports of Chinese prod- 
ucts of local origin; 
To foreign countries 

and Hongkong 

To Chinese ports 

Total exports of local 




To Chinese ports 


1,329,069 
617,918 




Total foreign rcex- 


517,692 


632,685 






5,419,433 


6,741,595 


826,017 


Nct total foreign im- 


1,976,987 


2,611,044 


" 


5,188,545 


5,368,650 


Gross value of tlie trade of 
the port ,.. 

Net value of the trade of 
the port 


Imports of Chinese prod- 


13,102,657 


15,354,574 








12,372,939 


U, 437, 400 









The quantities of both imports and exports decreased ; there was 
a material advance in the unit values of articles purcha.sed from 



» The value of the Haikwan tael used in this supplement is $0,012 for 1915 and 
?0.S28o for 1916. 

4988°— 52e — 17 1 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPOBTS. 



abroad, and a less appreciable gain in the unit values of shipments to 
other countries. Customs revenues declined by 97,542 Haikwan taels 
($80,794). 

For many years Amoy was prominent among Chinese ports, being 
the point of shipment for large quantities of Oolong, Amoy, and 
Formosa tea, but its trade has declined so much that it now handles 
onl}^ about 2 per cent of the commerce of China, foreign and 
domestic. 

High Exchange Limits Remittances from Abroad. 

The annual departure of able-bodied males from Amoy to the 
Straits Settlements, Java, and the Philippines has left this district 
entirely undeveloped industrially. The purchasing power of the 
people is determined largely by the volume of remittances from 
abroad. [See Commerce Keports for June 28, 1917.] Early in 1916 
silver began to rise, and remittances were withheld until the finan- 
cial stringency here became acute. During the year they were 20 
per cent less than normal, amounting to $12,000,000. 

The Spanish dollar, a book unit employed locally for all foreign 
business and exchange transactions, normally at a premium of about 
2 per cent over silver, fell to a discount of 8 per cent in 1916. 

Trade with Principal Countries. 

The following table shows the value of Amoy's imports from and 
exports to the principal countries with which it had trade relations 
during the past two years : 



Countries. 



Gross imports of 
foreign goods. 



1916 



Exports (including 
reexports of native 
goods). 



1915 



1916 



Total. 



1916 



British India 

Dutch East Indies 

French Indo-China 

Hongkong 

Japan (including Taiwan) 

Pliilippine Islands 

Singapore, Straits Settlements, etc.. 
United States (including Hawaii) . .. 
All other countries 

Total 



$240, 423 

354,620 

5,716 

3,498,216 

9S3, 592 

55,062 

156,554 

316, 521 

4,449 



$544, 730 

557, 259 

27, 133 

3,584,800 

1,599,565 

51,007 

214,929 

605, 555 

3,902 



S70, 886 
413,460 



$81,370 
416, 109 



150,009 
218,868 
119,110 
548, 361 
76 
891 



396, 444 
220, 340 
162, 779 
766,827 
115 
645 



$311,309 

768, 080 

5,716 

3,648,825 

1, 202, 460 

174, 172 

704,915 

316,597 

5,340 



$626, 100 

973,368 

27, 133 

3,981,244 

1,819,905 

213, 786 

981, 756 

505,670 

4,547 



5,615,153 



7,( 



2,044,629 



7, 137, 414 



9, 133, 509 



Of the total foreign imports in 1916, 4 per cent reached Amoy from 
Chinese ports, principally Shanghai, and 96 per cent is credited to 
foreign countries direct — approximately 50 per cent from Hongkong, 
the distributing center for South China ; more than 20 per cent from 
Jai^an ; about 7 per cent each from the United States, British India, 
and the Dutch East Indies; and 3 per cent from the Straits Settle- 
ments. 

With Hongkong as the principal source of supply of foreign goods 
for Amoy, the American exporter must depend largely upon his rep- 
resentative at that port for participation in the Amoy import trade. 

Except for the shipments to Japan and a part of those to Hong- 
kong, the exports from Amoy are sent principally to the countries to 
which the Amoy Chinese have emigrated. 
The Import Trade of Amoy. 

The import trade of this port in 1916 was composed of foreign 
goods valued at $6,741,595 and Chinese goods valued at $5,084,161, 



CHINA AMOY. 6 

tho. latter representinir niostl}^ foodstuffs — flour and ric:^ — and bean 
ca! e for fertilizer. Kerosene was the ])rinei[)al commodity imported 
fi( m the United States, the quantity decreasinj^ from 2,;540,585 
g;; 'Ions in 1015 to l,TO;5.G-iO fjallons in 1910, but the total vahie in- 
creasing^ materially because of much hi^jher prices. Am-vican cotton 
goods, drugs and chemicals, hardware, and provisions also figured in 
the list of imports, many shipments coming through Hongkong and 
Shanghai. 

The quantity of foreign imports declined considerably in 1916, but 
the value was greatly advanced on account of war conditions ancl the 
difference in exchange rates. The value of the principal foreign 
goods imported during the past two years is given in the accompany- 
ing table: 



Articles. 



COTTON GOODS. 



Blankets 

Cloth: 

Japanese 

T cloths, 32 inches- 
English 

Japanese 

Turkev-red cottons and 

dyed T cloths 

Drills, American 

Flannel, plain, dyed, and 

printed 

Jeans 

Lenos and balzarines, white, 

dyed, and printed , 

Shirtings, plain: 
Gray— 

English 

Japanese 

White 

Thread, on spools 

Towels 

Yarn; 

Indian 

Japanese 

All other cotton goods 



1915 



MISCELLANEOUS PIECE GOODS. 



Canvas and cotton duck 

Woolen goods 

All other miscellaneous piece 
goods 



METALS AND MINERALS. 

Brass and copper, and manu- 
factures of 

Iron and steel, and manu- 
factures of 

Lead 

Quicksilver 

Tin: 

Plates 

Slabs 

All other metals and min- 
erals 



SUNDRIES. 



B^che de mer 

Birds' nests 

Bottles, empty 

Candles 

Cement 

Cereals: Rico and paddy 

Cigarette-making materials . 



$4,143 

50,850 

17,330 
60, 224 

26, 767 
3,4i8 

14,052 
3,474 

12,264 



74,300 
23,395 
97, 276 
19,992 
12,480 

189,856 

81,048 

316, 262 



9,171 

54,061 



26, 493 



6,975 

42, 555 
7,648 
4,450 

18,679 
88,396 

6,852 



93, 763 
54,857 
15, 831 
16,623 
8,322 
731,841 



1916 



55,699 

59,005 

12,310 
82,598 

21,937 
7,668 

9,276 
8,602 

11,542 



94,661 
15,700 
76,490 
20, 727 

8, 192 

196, S41 

65,466 

242,478 



13,659 
32,912 

2,672 



4,768 

44,425 
5,259 
21,021 

56, 192 
155,435 



63,629 
44,223 
16,680 
37,416 
11,438 
1,514,760 
20,019 



Articles. 



SUNDRIES— Continued. 



Cigarettes 

Clocks and watches 

Clothing, hats, boots, shoes, 
and gloves (other than 

india rubber or leather) 

Coal 

Dyes and dyestuffs 

Electrical materials 

Enameled \rare 

Fish and fish products, n. e. s. 

Furniture and materials 

Ginjeng 

Crlxis and glassware 

Hc5 cry 

Lamps and iampware 

Leatiicrand manufactures of, 

n.e. s 

Machinery 

Manures .". 

Matches 

lifzi;, prepared and pre- 
served 

Milk, condensed 

Medicines 

Melayses 

Mushrooms 

Oil, kerosene: 

A mcrican 

Bcmeo 

Japanese 

Sumatra 

Paints 

Paper, including cardboard . . 
Soap and soap-making mate- 
rials 

Spirits of wine 

Stores, household, n. e. s 

Sugar: 

Brown 

White 

Ilcfined 

Candy 

Tallow, refuse 

Umbrellas, European and 

American 

Wax, paraffin 

Wines and spirits, n. e. s 

Postal parcels, n. e. s 

All other articles 



Total 

Excess of reexports over im- 
ports 



Net total. 



1915 



$71,083 
10,348 



108, 178 

25. 277 

22, 659 

ti,902 

10, 138 

7C.7, ISO 

s. 752 

202, 389 

9,124 

10,406 

15,319 

48,711 
35,053 
90, 724 
136,036 

19,093 
32, 356 
77,312 
26, 210 
27,127 

315, 137 
54,113 
18,479 
9K, 328 
16,509 
18, 435 

30,020 
6, .563 
27, 801 

21,445 
91,419 
35(i, 142 
10.927 
2.5,454 

19, 6.53 
12,772 
29, 215 
24,053 
327, 378 



5,469,987 
127,386 



5,342,601 



1916 



S122,291 
10,260 



67,151 

102,812 

22, 125 

23,0.57 

12,835 

575,403 

18,955 

172,521 

15,413 

22, 521 

19,031 

29, 862 
15,125 
19, 353 
189, 667 

26,863 
29,924 
139, 729 
20, 594 
24, 490 

500, 478 
87.190 
46, 721 

148, 104 
11,755 
12, 058 

48, 727 
18, 867 
44, 508 

4,337 

299; 874 

339, 9ti0 

2-t, 829 

34, 082 

12,611 
24,011 
44, 162 
46, 521 
334, 740 



6, 752, 773 
1,909 



6, 750, 804 



Imports of cotton goods, w'oolen goods, metals (except tin slabs), 
and petroleum decreased in quantity, with increased values. Eice 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE EJEPORTS. 



imports gained from 28,472 tons, $731,841, in 1915 to 41,468 tons, 
$1,514,760, in 1916; fish and fish products declined materially. 
Increased Exports — Shipments to United States and Philippines. 

Of the total exports of Chinese products of local origin ($2,611,644) 
two-thirds went to foreign countries and Hongkong and one-third 
to Chinese ports. 

The following is a statement of the value of the principal exports 
to foreign countries during 1915 and 1916 : 



Articles. 



Bags 

Bamboo and bamboo ware. 

Beans, yellow 

Books, isrinted 

Chinaware 

Coal 

Cordage 

Fish and fish products 

Fishing nets 

Fruit, u. e. s 

Garlic 

Grass cloth 

Hides and skins, undressed: 

Cow and buffalo 

Joss sticks 

Longans, dried 

Matches 

Mats 

Medicines 

Nankeens 

Oil, groundnut 

Oranges, fresh 

Paper: 

First quality 

Second quality 

Joss 



1915 


1916 


S9,6&3 


$7,692 


24,S75 


28,831 


42,325 


68, 88G 


6,527 


10,695 


11,908 


12,324 


1,408 


30,815 


9,451 


14,541 


18,397 


27, 2«9 


17,742 


19,989 


21,498 


19,485 


12,552 


6,741 


34,194 


32,267 


47, 61« 


156, 612 


16,167 


17, 232 


9,238 


11,967 


4, 186 


5,904 


23,778 


11,094 


11,924 


17,126 


5,935 


15,748 


414 


15,948 


6,602 


10,086 


99,351 


91,656 


6,057 


6,554 


229, 124 


281,741 



Articles. 



Potatoes 

Pottery and earthenware 

Samshu 

Seeds: Rape 

Silk thread . .' 

Soy 

Stones (marble, granite, etc.) . 

Tea, black 

Tobacco: 

Leaf and stalk 

Prepared 

Turnips, dried and salted 

Umbrellas, paper (kittysols). 

I Vegetables, n. e. s , 

Vermicelli and macaroni 

All other articles 



Total 

Native products of other 
Chinese ports reexported 
to foreign countries 



Net total. 



f6,814 
7,-372 
73. 199 
5; 579 
1,643 
1,678 
9,423 
114, 292 

156,054 
179,971 
10, 146 
19,995 
40,352 
80,514 
144, 235 



1,522,261 



193, 192 



1,329,069 



1916 



f 9, 265 
10,468 
86,321 
6, 445 
5,370 
5,636 
6,502 
155,415 

84,383 

329,191 

13, 154 

39,878 

52,612 

170, 621 

148,135 



2,044,629 



259,002 



1,785,627 



Exports of hides and skins increased by $108,994; vermicelli, 
$90,107 ; tobacco, $77,549 ; and paper, $45,419. 

Declared exports to the United States were valued at $2,784 
in 1915 and $14,744 in 1916, and consisted almost entirely of nar- 
cissus bulbs. Shipments invoiced for the Philippines, valued at 
$91,860 in 1915 and $122,542 in 1916, were chiefly articles intended 
for consumption by the Chinese in those islands. The largest items 
in 1916 were: Vegetables and preserves, $18,373; grass cloth, $10,290; 
groundnuts, $8,727; vermicelli, $7,818; and beans, $7,461. 
Shipping Statistics — Emigration and Immigration. 

The number of steamers entering and clearing at the port of 
Amoy was 1,488 of 1,779,512 tons in 1915, and 1,442 of 1,850,312 tons 
in 1916. The principal nationalities represented were: British, 
841 vessels of 1,043,837 tons in 1915, and 729 of 961,788 tons in 1916 ; 
Japanese, 377 of 386,667 tons, and 449 of 495,902 tons; Chinese, 194 
of 109,298 tons, and 180 of 184,070 tons; and Dutch, 60 of 157,072 
tons, and 64 of 173,240 tons. 

The total customs duties collected in 1916 were $354,610, of Avhich 
45 per cent was from cargo on British vessels; 30 per cent, Japanese; 
10 per cent, Chinese; and 9 per cent, Dutch. 

Emigration from the Amoy district in 1916 increased largely from 
the previous year. The passenger movement through the port is 

figures: Leaving, 66,907 in 1915, and 
,342 in 1915, and 69,272 in 1916. The 



shown by the accompanving 
95,157 in 1916; arriving, 66,? 



CHINA — AMOY. 5 

trnffic to and from the Straits Settlements showed the Lirijest gain in 
liJlG, the departures from Amoy being 05,011, against '2!),-iG5 in 1915, 
and the arrivals here 29,362, compared with 27,700. 

Movement of Treasure — Foreign Population. 

The total value of the treasure imported into Amoy was $1,852,960 
in 1915, and $1,830,212 in 191G; of the receipts in the latter year 
$694,680 was from foreign countries, and $1,135,532 from Chinese 
ports. Exports of treasure amounted to $1,763,475 in 1915, and 
$4,006,322 ($597,967 to foreign countries, and $3,408,355 to Chinese 
ports) in 1916. In February, 1917, the export of coined silver was 
temporaril}' prohibited, the drain on the local supply due to the 
heavy exports from Chinese ports that followed the high exchange 
rate having threatened seriously financial conditions in China. 

The foreign population of the Amoy district in 1916, according to 
the customs statistics, was 2,754, including 2.002 Japanese, 400 Brit- 
ish, and 158 Americans. The Chinese population was 114,000. Of 
the 260 foreign firms, 179 were Japanese, 40 British, 14 Spanish, 
9 Dutch, 8 French, and 8 American. The foreign residents and 
firms include persons of Chinese origin or descent who are citizens, 
subjects, or proteges of the nationalities indicated. 
Educational Development — Cost of Living. 

Statistics compiled during 1916 from provincial returns furnished 
by the Chinese authorities indicate a total of 875 Government schools 
ii^ the Amoy consular district, with 34,845 pupils, 2,301 teachers, a 
revenue of about $175,325, and an expenditure of $210,291. These 
figures show an encouraging development, one feature being the estab- 
lishment of several schools for girls. 

Missionary educational work continues to expand. Tung Wen 
Institute, a school of academy grade supported by the local gentry, 
with American superintendent and instructors, will be raised to 
college grade. 

Advanced freight and insurance rates, limited supplies, greater 
cost of production at home, abnormally high exchange, and increases 
due to various local causes raised the cost of living for foreigners in 
Amoy m 1916 approximately 40 per cent over 1915, Avhen it was 
already far above normal. 

The cost of living for the natives increased likevv'ise. Rice has 
risen from $5.70 local currency per picul (133^ pounds) to $6.30; 
firewood and charcoal, 35 per cent; pork, from 25 to 32 per 
cent. Cotton goods have advanced materitUly. It is estimated 
that for food alone a coclie must spend $3.50 or $4 local currency per 
month, and if his wages are only $8 or $9, nearly half goes for sus- 
tenance. This leaves him little for raiment, shelter, heat, and abso- 
lute necessities. 

Local Industries — Mineral Wealth Unexploited. 

The few industries in this district include paper making on a 
fairly extensive scale, the manufacture of vermicelli, and sugar refin- 
ing. At Amoy tAvo canning companies prepare Chinese products for 
local consumption and for export principally to the Amoy Chinese 
abroad. The turnover of one of these concerns in 1916 was $100,000 ; 
that of the other, about $70,000. 



6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 

The richness of the mineral deposits of South Fukien is generally 
admitted. Abundant outcrops of coal, iron, and correlative minerals 
are found in the several districts, but the difficulty of transportation 
has so far prevented exploitation. Preliminary surveys were made in 
191G by Jai^anese and others. An attempt to market the high-grade 
coal produced at Lung-yen-chow was unsuccessful. 

Internal Transportation. 

One of the largest problems confronting this district is that of 
communication with the interior. There are no roads; only narrow 
paths raised about a foot above the fields. 

The district is just as poorly equipped with water transportation 
facilities. The one important stream wdiich connects Amoy with 
Changchow and a rich agricultural section is navigable only by 
light-draft native craft, and even steam launches can proceed no 
farther than Chioh-be, about halfway from Amoy to Changchow. 

The estuary on the north of Amoy extends within a few miles of 
Tungan, and still farther north to Anhai, the inland port of Chuan- 
chowfu. Steam launch service with these points is available, but the 
line direct to Chuanchowfu, through the open sea, is dangerous. 

A short railway runs from Sungsu, on the mainland opposite 
Amoy, to Pohlam, a distance of about 17 miles in the direction of 
Changchow. This section is part of a scheme originally proposed 
to connect Amoy with Changchow\ The present line, with neither 
terminus a commercial center, carries passenger traffic almost en- 
tirely. The projected narrow-gauge railway from a point near 
Anhai, on the estuary north of Amoy, northward to Chuanchow, 
was deferred on account of the w^ar; it is now planned to build a 
temporary automobile road between these points and operate a line 
of motor omnibuses. Surveys were recently completed for 18 miles 
of highways on the island of Amoy. 

Opportunities for American Trade Extension. 

The sale of American hardware, canned goods, condensed milk, 
drugs and pharmaceutical supplies, paints, varnishes, cotton goods, 
and other manufactures in the Amoy district can be increased if 
these lines are properly pushed. 

Four or five representatives of American firms visited this district 
in 1916. Although Chinese dealers are not willing to establish direct 
connections with foreign firms abroad, they will do so with the 
foreign firms at Hongkong and Shanghai. 

At present electric light equipment is needed in a number of the 
smaller cities in the district. Despite the difficulty of inadequate 
capital, British and Japanese firms have installed plants. 

CHEFOO. 

By Consul Lester Maynarcl. 

The commerce of Chefoo declined in 1916 in spite of the diversion 
to this port of a considerable jDortion of the trade that Tsingtau 
enjoyed during German occuj^ancy. In statistics giving values con- 
verted into gold equivalents the decrease is not apparent, because of 



CHINA — CHEFOO. 



the high exchanee rate in lOlG. Tn llaikwan taels the ofross vahic 
of the trade of ^the port was 4:^,7^.4.1)02 in 1015 and ;^1),!)()3,361 in 
191G; in United States currency, $-2r),7G5.7()0 and $33,101,051. The 
theory that high exchange meant increased purchasing power for 
China and a consequently hirger opportunity for the sale of foreign 
goods oAcrlooked the fact that China must sell its jn'oducts in order 
to obtain the silver with which to buy foreign gold exchange to pay 
for its purchases abroad. Careful students of Chinese exchange 
problems agree that a low or slightly less than normal rate results 
in an accelerated interchange of goods with foreign countries; as it 
was high in 191G, Chefoo's smaller volume of trade is explained. 

Summary of Maritime Customs Statistics. 

The following table summarizes the values of imports and exports 
through the maritime customs at Chefoo during 1915 and 1916 : 



Imports and exports. 


1915 


1916 


Imports and exports. 


1915 


1916 


Imports of foreign goods: 
From foreign countries . 
From Cliinese ports — 


$3,554,388 
2,569,903 


$5,617,338 
2,660,869 


Reexports of Chinese prod- 
ucts—Continued. 
To Chinese ports 

Total Chinese 


S500, 663 


$682,595 


Total foreign 


6,124,291 


8,278,207 


785,320 


1, 345, 660 




Net total Chinese 




Reexports of foreign goods: 
To foreign countries... 


298,289 
1,602,852 


501,015 
2,200,008 


6,016,650 


6,508,425 


To Cliinese ports 


Exports of Chinese prod- 
ucts of local orip^in: 
To foreign countries . . . 
To Cliinese ports 

Total c.xports of local 


2,E3i,885 
10,904,614 




Total foreign 


1,901,141 


2,701,023 


4,313,453 






Net total foreign 


4,223,150 


5,577,184 




13,839,499 






Ifi QfiO "iVi 


Imports of Chinese prod- 


6,801,970 


7,854,085 


Gross value of the trade of 




26,765,760 






33, 101, 651 


Reexports of Chinese prod- 
ucts: 
To foreign countries. . . 


278,657 


663,065 


Net value of the trade of 
the port 


24,079,299 


29, 054, 968 









The generally increased values are due mainly to the changed 
conversion rates. A study of the silver values shows an actual gain 
in imports of foreign goods from foreign countries and a decline in 
those from Chinese ports. Reexports of foreign goods to both 
foreign countries and Chinese ports increased in 191G, leaving a con- 
siderable decrease in the net total foreign imports. 

Chinese imports decreased materially, and as the reexports greatly 
increased, the net total Chinese imports declined in value by almost 
2,000,000 Haikwan taels. Chinese exports to foreign countries in- 
creased, but to other Chinese ports greatly decreased, the total result 
being a decline of more than 2,000,000 Haikwan taels. The net value 
of the trade of the port vras almost 4.300.000 Haikwan taels less than 
in 1915. 

With the generally advanced prices of practically all import and 
export commodities, the foregoing statistics indicate the unsatisfac- 
tory state of trade. 



8 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 



Direct Trade with Foreign Countries. 

The following table shows the direct trade of Chefoo with foreign 
countries during the past two years : 



Countries. 



Gross imports of for- 
eign goods. 



1915 



Exports and reex- 
ports of native 
goods. 



1915 



1916 



Total. 



Australia, New Zealand, etc 

Chosen (Korea) 

France 

Great Britain 

Hongkong 

Japan (including Taiwan) 

Russia, Pacific ports (Vladivostok). . 
Russia and Siberia, by land frontier. 
United States (including Hawaii) . . . 
All other countries 



$127 
1,483,817 
11,717 
142,912 
835, 942 
842, 797 
102, 281 



130,415 
4,380 



$137 

2,323,278 

17, 703 

202, 191 

1,336,493 

1,444,689 

33, 805 

46 

252, 973 

6,023 



$250,334 

6,231 

78, 406 

2,218,640 

223, 241 

380, 133 

51,261 



5,295 



$1, 089, 951 

748, 934 

13, 736 

256, 078 

1,822,475 

436, 540 

434,483 

852 

151,459 

22, 010 



$127 

1, 734, 151 

17,948 

221,318 

3, 054, 582 

1,006,038 

482,414 

51,261 

130,415 

9,675 



$1,090,088 

3, 072, 212 

31, 439 

458,269 

3,158,968 

1,881,229 



404, 432 
28,033 



Total. 



3,554,388 



5,617,338 



3,213,541 



4,976,518 



6, 767, 929 



10, 593, 856 



The foregoing table does not, however, give a clear view of the 
trade of Chefoo, which is an oiitport and receives from one-third to 
one-half its foreign imports through other Chinese ports, such as 
Shanghai; and only about one-fourth of its exports go directly 
abroad, most of them being shipped through Chinese ports — 
Shanghai, Tientsin, etc. 

Practically the only article brought directly from the United 
States to Chefoo is kerosene, which was valued at $125,650 out of the 
total imports of $130,415 in 1915 and at $234,155 out of $252,973 in 
1916. This would leave an insignificant amount for other articles, 
whereas considerable quantities of American goods reach this market 
through other Chinese ports, but lose their identity in the customs 
statistics, being grouped with imports from other countries that come 
indirectly. 

The table under consideration shows no exports to the United 
States (including Haw-aii) in 1915, and only $151,459 worth in 1916; 
the shipments declared at this consulate were valued at $560,450 and 
$1,088,342, respectively. 
Ginseng Distributed from Chefoo. 

Most of Chefoo's direct imports come from Chosen (Korea), which 
sends a great deal of ginseng to this port for storage purposes, the 
climate being favorable; and it is later reexported to other Chinese 
ports or to Hongkong for transshipment to South China or to the 
Chinese residing in the Straits Settlements and the Dutch East 
Indies; the local consumption and trade is relatively unimportant. 
Under special regulations for the port of Cliefoo ginseng so imported 
pays the regular duty, which is refunded if the commodity is re- 
exported within three years. 

The gross imports of ginseng from foreign countries during 1916 
amounted to 37,262 pounds, valued at $2,203,847, against 28,771 
pounds, valued at $1,442,759, for 1915. Reexports to Chinese ports 
and foreign countries totaled $1,433,832 in 1916, compared with 
$1,961,007 in 1915. 

American ginseng does not enter this market, although it pre- 
dominates in South China. Korean ginseng is much higher in price, 



CHINA — CHEFOO. 



9 



and it seems that a demand for the cheaper American article shouhl 
be created. Tlie trade in South China is conducted aluK^st entirely 
through Hongkonfi; middlemen. The latter are familiar with the 
peculiar requirements of each locality and consequently able to grade 
and sort the roots so as to obtain a ready market and .tlie highest 
prices. Among disadvantages there are the unsatisfactory clinuite 
that prevents the carrying of large stocks and the distance from 
America, the source of supply. Time is also an important factor in 
meeting immediate demands and in promptly replenishing stocks. 

Special facilities are offered at Chefoo for carrying large stocks. 
Grading and assorting could be done here and prompt shipments 
made to any part of China. Only a large concern, however, with 
ample financial backing and extensive supplies, could take advantage 
of these conditions so as to itself organize the American ginseng 
trade throughout China by employing Chinese experts to arrange 
stocks that might be held in Chefoo. 

Direct Imports of Foreign Goods. 

Comparative figures of the principal direct imports of foreign 
goods from foreign countries, with quantities and net values, are 
shoAvn in the following table : 



Quantity. Value 



Bags num1>er. 

Beans, peas, etc tons. 

Cigarettes thousands- 
Cigars do. . . 

Coal tons a. 

Cotton goods: 

Blankets pieces. 

Flannelettes, plain, dyed, or printed do... 

Japanese cotton cloth yards. 

Jeans, Japanese pieces. 

Prints , cotton do. . . 

T-cloth, Japanese do. . . 

Sheetings, gray, plain, Japanese do... 

Shirtings, graj', plain, Japanese do. . . 

Thread- 
In balls tons. 

On spools gross. 

Turkey red cottons and dyed T cloths pieces. 

Yarn- 
Indian tons . 

Japanese do. . . 

other cotton goods 

Dyes, colors, and paints tons. 

Fish and fish products do. . . 

Ginseng pounds. 

Glass and glassware • 

Hair tons. 

Leather do . . . 

Maize do. . . 

Matches gross. . 

Match making materials 

Medicines 

Metals and minerals: 

Iron and mild steel, old tons. 

Nails and rivets do 

other do.. . 

Oil, kerosene: 

American gallons. 

Japanese do 

Paper, including cardboard 

Pepper, black and white tons.. 

Piece goods, miscellaneous 

Provisions, n. e. s 

Rice .'. .'.'..'.'.'. ...tons! ! 



380, 960 

2,715 

7,421 

2,383 

34,645 

3,241 

107 

65,040 

10, 572 



8,520 

25,160 

750 

1 

31,580 

8,825 

118 
1,440 



651 
2,149 
25,178 



8 

68 

1,381 

1,279,196 



?27, 152 
62, 322 
9,714 
23,319 

127, 25 J 

1,004 

221 

2, 787 

21, 258 



1,869 



1, 299, 430 



99 
"5,163 



9,020 

44, 962 

1,680 

1,118 
29, 957 
13,075 

26, 688 

329, 6.56 

4,462 

34, 237 

85, 222 

1,235,061 

4, 434 

74, 452 

30, 745 

25,356 

156,593 

4, 1.30 

13,323 

32, 601 



1916 



4,836 
125,650 



43,012 

17,716 

7,140 

20,204 

132, 721 



Quantity. Value 



321,043 

1 

5,840 

65 

20, 150 

5,406 

3,4.8.5 

146,460 

4, 672 

1,76.5 

4,320 

18,550 

620 

4 

56,029 
12, 908 

39 
1,594 



1,626 

2,357 

31,982 



8 

139 

Z, 835 

1,455,864 



2,075 
98 
170 

971,458 
38,650 



76 
'i'397' 



$27, (M6 

73 

19, 349 

1,077 

100,341 

2,745 
10, 681 

5,338 
11,989 

4,313 

6,799 
51,319 

1,774 

4,448 
95, 620 
30, 465 

11,629 

498,170 

2,590 

166,613 

123, 888 

1,843,040 

,5,937 

91,006 

104,797 

104, 836 

349, 709 

24,445 

23,12^ 

62, 195 
17,108 
23,124 

234,155 
4,802 
43,154 
20,792 
9,423 
32, 763 
80,178 



49SS°— 52e— 17- 



o 2,240 pounds. 



10 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 



Articles. 


1915 


1916 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Silk and silk goods 








$16 059 


Soda 


...tons.. 
...do.... 
...do.... 


1,158 

9,498 

60 


$27, 463 

392, 5.59 

4, 510 

14,500 

97,954 






Sugar 

Tobacco 

Postal parcels (contents not otherwise classified)... 


10,011 
132 


689,287 
11,151 
25 978 


All other articles 






212^308 










Total 




3,320,064 
63,965 




5 205 642 


Less excess of reexports over imports , 






89,319 












Net total 




3,256,099 




5,116 323 











In considering the above table the effect of exchange on conversions 
into gold equivalents must be remembered, as well as the advanced 
prices of most commodities; and regarding increases or decreases 
attention is directed to' quantities rather than to values. 

Imports of Foreign Goods from Chinese Ports. 

The following table shows the gross values of foreign goods im- 
ported from Chinese ports and represents principally transshipment 
cargo, although a considerable amount is the result of this outport 
drawing on stocks carried in Shanghai: 



Articles. 



Cigarettes 

Cotton goods: 

Shirtings, sheetings, 
drills, jeans, and T 

cloths 

Prints— Dyed, plain, and 

figured 

Yarn 

Indigo, liquid, artificial 



$54,408 



786, 420 

073, 200 
226, 440 
361,080 



$110,005 



207,034 

1,071,735 

457,347 

42, 939 



Articles. 



Kerosene 

Sugar 

A 11 other articles 

Total 

Less reexports.. 

Net total. 



$77,112 

91,800 

299,383 



2,509,903 
1,602,852 



967,051 



$10,505 

79,002 

682,302 



2,660,869 
2,200,008 



460, 861 



Imports of Chinese Products. . 

The following table shows the quantity and value of the net native 
imports into Chefoo during 1915 and 1916 : 



Articles. 


1915 


1916 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Beans and peas .. 


22,759 

ISO 

a 54, 466 

19,035 

23 

4,778 

19,750 

6 113,500 

16, 848 

22 


$437,871 

21, 203 

164,080 

507, 162 

18,522 

486,250 

478,637 

284, 794 

1,553,504 

24,265 

1,980,302 


14,544 

165 

a 68, 202 

23, 743 

420 

5,336 

26,364 

6 92,322 

5,177 

25 


$361,411 


Cigarettes 


95, 691 


Coal 


281,981 


Flour, wheat 


985,299 


Grass cloth 


522,019 


Paper 


742,029 


Rice 


864,753 


Sheetings 


344, 116 


Silk cocoons 


967,550 


Straw braid 


80,841 


All other articles 


1,262,735 










Total 




6,016,650 




6,508,425 











6 Pieces. 



a Long tons of 2,240 pounds. 

The increase in both quantity and value of flour illustrates the 
growing use of the Chinese product at the expense of imported 
foreign brands, which are now unimportant in the trade of this port. 



CHINA — CHEFOO. ' 



11 



Shangliai sheetings show a decline from 1915, although Avlien con- 
verted into gokl the vahie appears as an increase. 
The Silk Trade. 

Important as regards trade with the United States is the de- 
creased importation of silk cocoons from Manchuria. These are 
used in the manufacture of Slumtung pongees and the increasing 
American demand during the jjast 3'ear greatly reduced available 
stocks on hand in Chefoo; prices advanced as much as 30 per cent in 
some grades. Although the demand continues strong, evidently to 
replace silks formerly imported from other countries but now avail- 
able only in limited quantities, because of the diminished supply of 
cocoons the future is uncertain for the pongee trade. The imports 
of silk cocoons from Manchuria, through the foreign customs at 
Chefoo, declined from 23,000,000 pounds in 1915 to about 10.000,000 
pounds in 191G. The imports through the native customs also de- 
creased considerably. 

This decline is attributed to three causes, (1) a short supply of 
cocoons due to disease among the silkworms, (2) the establishment of 
silk filatures in southern Manchuria and the use of this grade of 
silk by filatures in Japan, and (3) the reported holding of stocks for 
advanced prices by Japanese speculators. Of these factors the first 
accounts for the most serious shortage. The second will supply a 
limited amount of pongees, but the qualities and grading will be 
doubtful. The silk manufactured in Japan in imitation of Shantung 
pongee is machine-made and can not compare with the handmade 
pongees of this Province in either appearance or wearing qualities. 
The third cause covers a small suppl}^ which will eventually be re- 
leased and tend to advance materially the price of Shantung ]:)ongees. 
Generally speaking the outlook is for a continued demand with high 
and advancing prices and limited stocks. 
Exports of Chinese Products. 

The following table sliows the exports of Chinese goods to foreign 
countries during 1915 and 1916: 



Articles. 



1915 



Quantify. 



Value. 



Quantitj'. 



Value. 



Beans : 

Chinaware 

Clothing, etc 

Cordage, hemp, etc 

Cotton goods: 

Nankeens 

other 

Cotton, raw and wadding. 

Dates, black and red 

Eggs, fresh and preserved . 

Fishery products 

Fruits, fresh and dried . . . 

Grass cloth 

Groundnuts: 

In shell 

Kernels 

Hair nets 

Hemp 

Hides, cow 

Lace 



tons. 

.pounds. 



233 
152, SOO 



.tons. 



.pounds. 



54, 467 



tons. 

.number. 

tons. 

do... 

do... 



.do... 
.do... 



.tons, 
.do... 



425 

22,000,000 

l,,'j.)0 

1,009 

115 

4,922 
547 



$4, 410 
5, 59G 

52, 536 
5,442 

10,583 

1,672 

16, 7.59 

17,791 

100, ,580 
73,751 
27,095 

119,511 

141,633 
25, 337 

124,025 
4,162 
21,708 

104, 598 



40 
99, 733 



59 
31,600 



282 

,2.54, .528 

1,121 

373 

388 

4, .365 
716 



$1,0.54 

4,862 
87, .573 
9,786 

9,917 
6,. 542 
4,765 
16,315 
5 1.. 508 
7.-», 949 
15,115 
482, 855 

249,606 
44,4.52 

334,946 

1,.527 

46,695 

292,859 



12 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1916 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Leather and leather goods tons . 

Licorice do . . . 

Mats number. 

Meats, fresh and frozen tons . 

Medicines 

Metals tons . 

Oil: 

Bean do... 

Groundnut do. . . 

Sesame do. . . 

Wood do... 

Paper do. . . 

Provisions, n.e.s 

Seeds tons. 

Silk: 

Piece goods do. . . 

Pongees pounds. 

Raw wild (filature) tons . 

Straw braid pounds . 

Tea do. . . 

Timber and wood manufacture 

Vermicelli tons. 

Walnuts pounds. 

I'ostal parcels, not otherwise classified 

All other articles 



17 

419 

107, 570 

115 



220 



4 
104 



220 

7 
649, 732 

42 
65, 466 
32, 799 



9,440 
76, 000 



$4,880 
29, S70 
8,022 
10,637 
45, 509 
11,146 

7,061 
4,726 
9, 256 
479 
11,540 
28,314 
15, 250 

34, 981 
1,061,617 

90, 948 

46, 1.55 
3, 106 

11,040 

880, 2."6 

1,968 

2,946 

36,346 



4 

.531 

57, 927 



141 

73 
54 
7 
96 



202 

13 

654, 265 

72 

1,333 

29, 733 



7,044 
142,666 



$1,791 

54,929 
6,476 
40 
66,555 
17, 159 

16,094 

9,415 

9,816 

1,165 

14,321 

30, 0.36 

15, 716 

81,250 

1, 706, 743 

315, 466 

2,902 

5,396 

13, 427 

762, 490 

7,329 

3,230 

94, 446 



Total 

Less reexports of goods of Chinese origin . 



3,213,542 

278,657 



4, 976, 518 
663,065 



Net total. 



2, 934, 885 



4,313,453 



As in the case of imports, quantities rather than values should be 
noted in considering the trade of Chefoo, and the foregoing table 
sliould be studied in connection w^ith the following statement of 
net Chinese exports to other Chinese ports and the table of declared 
exports through this consulate. Many of the foreign exports from 
Chefoo are sent by coasting steamers, principally to Shanghai, for 
transshipment or to enter the larger markets of China prior to being 
sold abroad. 

The following list of net Chinese exports from Chefoo to other 
Chinese ports show quantities and values for 1915 and 1916 : 



Articles. 



1915 



Tons. 



Value. 



Tons. 



Value. 



Bean cake 

Fish , dried and salted 

Fruit, dried ana fresh 

Groundnuts in shells and kernels. 
Silk: 

Wild and raw 

Waste 

Pongees 

Straw braid 

Vermicelli 

All other articles 



19,389 
5,096 
3,703 

15,453 

1,313 
1,352 
1,018 
439 
8,953 



$347,074 
224,253 
92, 708 
493,383 

2, 629, 292 

964,334 

3,326,905 

1,206,111 

835,839 

784,715 



5,635 
3,769 
3,904 
4,580 

631 

1,032 

753 

531 

7,251 



$119,722 
235, 612 
132,994 
288,641 

2,768,098 
1,304,259 
3,198,041 
2,226,061 
789,203 
1,693,275 



Total . 



10,904,614 



12,655,906 



Shipments to TJnited States. 

The exports declared at this consulate for shipment to the United 
States during 1915 and 1916 are shown in the following table : 



CHINA — CHEFOO. 



13 



Articles. 



Quantity. Value 



1916 



Quantity. Value 



Cases, bird, bamboo number. . 

Hair, human poimd.s. . 

Kair nets gross.. 

Hides, cow pounds.. 

Ilou.sehold and personal elTecls 

i.are and insertion, linen and cotton yards.. 

I.ace and .silk do 

l.ace soods and embroideries pieces . . 

I'orcelain wares do 

KuK's. woolen square j-ards. . 

Silk: 

I'onfree in gum pounds. . 

Waste do 

Straw braid do 



10,112 I $19,331 



87,232 
5.13t 

8,256 



259,015 



152, 480 



3,146 

5,331 

642 

1,317 



36 

249 

64,308 

1,995 



$200 

533 

143, 290 

718 



350, 250 



179,660 



£3,141 

45') 

2, 70S 

4 

007 

255,014 

648 

254, OSO 



8.146 

196 

1,720 

36 

5,754 

540, 444 

328 

335, 142 



Total . 



559, 707 



1,086,507 



Exports to Hawaii were valued at $743 in 1915 and $1,836 in 1916 ; 
the items were lace and silk. Straw braid worth $3-21 was sent to 
the Philippines in 1915 ; there Avere no shipments in 1916. Returned 
American goods amounting to $328 were recorded in 1916, 

Development of American Trade. 

As previously stated, the direct import trade from the United 
States consists principally of kerosene oil. The direct exports are 
chiefly pongee silk, straw braid, hair nets, laces, and embroidered 
goods. This district, which includes all of Shantung Province south 
of the Yellow River (except Kiaochow Peninsula) also ships through 
other Chinese ports large quantities of eggs, bristles, peanuts, and 
raw and waste silk. The indirect imports are varied and cover all 
lines of provisions, hardware, glass, and sundries, but are rarely 
supplied on direct order. 

Firms in Shanghai usually carry sufficient stocks to furnish the 
limited and immediate requirements of the outports of North China 
such as Chefoo, and as tliere are no firms in this district able to do 
this, it would seem best for American manufacturers and exporters 
to study the needs of North China and, if prospective business should 
warrant it, to open a branch and carry stocks in Shanghai, distribut- 
ing their goods to the outports and thence to the smaller Cliine.se 
firms throughout the interior. Should the establishment of a branch 
not seem justified, it would be advisable to find a suitable firm in 
Shanghai (American preferred) to take the agency. 

American exporters should not fail to grasp the present favorable 
opportunity to establish their goods in the Chinese market. Old and 
favorably known trade-marks are disappearing because either the 
source of supply has been cut off or under present conditions the 
demand can not be supplied. Many firms in China have turned to 
the United States for stocks, and if the American articles become 
well and favorably known it may be difficult for the former Euro- 
pean competitors to regain control of this market. The strongest 
factor will be the willingness and the ability of the American manu- 
facturer to satisfy local requirements as to terms and quality. 



14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 

FOOCHOW. 

By Consul Albert W. Pontius. 

The trade of Foochow continued to suffer in 1916 as a result of 
the war and the political and financial troubles in this and the 
neighboring Provinces. The net value of the trade of the port dur- 
ing 1916 was $16,660,932— foreign imports, $5,152,860; native im- 
ports, $3,315,173 ; and exports, $7^892,899. Expressed in the Chinese 
customs unit, the vahie of the total trade exceeded that of 1915 by 
866,831 Haikwan taels. Imports from foreign countries increased 
by 1,056,417 taels and exports by 447,993 taels; imports from Chinese 
ports declined by 636,579 taels. The high prices prevailing in 
Europe and the United States accounted for the advanced value of 
foreign imports, the quantity being about the same in each of the 
past two years. 

The value of the direct trade with foreign countries follows: 
Hongkong, $4,397,496; Japan, $1,635,805; Eussia, $1,580,077; United 
States, $1,095,807; Great Britain, $685,579; France, $213,842; Singa- 
pore, Straits Settlements, etc., $48,772; Australia, $44,474; Canada, 
$42,205; and British India, $36,618. 

Fires and Drought Affect Trade — Revenues and Shipping. 

The native trade of the port was adversely affected by serious 
losses by fire during the year. In 25 fires, about 9,000 houses, valued 
at nearly $5,000,000, were destroyed, and less than 20 per cent of the 
loss was covered by insurance. The results were numerous failures 
and much suffering among the native population. The long drought, 
responsible for the poor harvests, and the unsettled conditions at 
many interior jjoints that made shipments uncertain were also 
detrimental to trade. 

The customs revenues for 1916 were: Import duties, $149,516; ex- 
port duties, $284,969; coast trade, $40,905; transit dues, $9^20; 
tonnage dues, $6,332. The total collection was considerably less than 
that of an average year. 

The number of steamers entering during 1916 was 540, with a total 
tonnage of 391,508, 100,000 tons less than in 1915, of the following 
nationalities: Chinese, 332 of 148,581 tons; British, 106 of 132,400 
tons; Japanese, 93 of 93,429 tons; Dutch, 6 of 8,527 tons, and 
American, Danish, and Russian, 1 each, of 4,308, 2,771, and 1,492 
tons, respectively. 

Banking and Exchange. 

During 1916 exchange rates, with occasional lapses, increased 
steadily, following the trend of silver. In August began the anomaly 
of local money being more valuable than Hongkong currency, the 
latter falling to 10 per cent discount; it was 6 per cent w^hen the 
year closed. This situation resulted from the great drain of dol- 
lars and sycee for shipment to India, together with the Government 
prohibition of the export of silver dollars from Hongkong. Local 
exchange on Europe and America was shared by three foreign bank- 
ing mstitutions— two British and one Japanese. The shortage of 
dollars was responsible for the import of 45,000 Mexican dollars and 
690,000 Japanese silver yen. 



CHINA FOOCHOW. 



15 



There are 37 native banks of financial standinij: located in the port, 
their combined capital aggregating $550,000 and outstanding notes 
approximately $750,000. The profits during 1916 were about 
$150,000, despite 10 serious commercial failures caused by one of the 
big fires. Owing to the financial stringency existing during the year, 
only the merchants of highest standing were granted the usual 3 
months' loans. 

The Government bank had a good year, with a profit of $55,000. 
Its outstanding notes amount to $100,000, and its reserve fund is 
$60,000; it maintains 11 branch offices in the Province. Salaries of 
Government officials are paid in notes issued by this bank. 
Articles Imported into Fooehow. 

The value of the principal articles imported into Fooehow during 
the past two years is shown in the following table : 



Articles. 



COTTON GOODS. 



Blankets 

Cambrics, lawns, and mu.'^lins. 
Cloth: 

Japanese 

T cloths- 
English 

Japanese 

Drills: 

Dyed 

Plain- 
American 

English 

Japanese 

Flannel: 

Plain, dyed, and printed, 

American 

Striped. Japanese 

Handkerchiefs 

Italians, plain and figured 

Jeans 

Lastings 

Lenos and balzarines, white, 

dyed, and printed 

Poplins, plain and figured 

Prints, plain, and chintzes 

Shirtings, plain: 

Dyed 

Gray , 

Hongkong, dyed , 

White 

Thread, on spools 

Towels 

Tiu-key-red cottons and dyed 

Tcloths 

Velvets and velveteens , 

Venetians, plain and figured. . 
Yarn: 

Indian , 

Japanese 

Other cotton goods. . » 



MISCELLANEOUS PIECE GOODS. 



Canvas and cotton duck. 
Woolen goods: 

BerUn wool 

Camlets, English 

Lastings 

Yarn and cord 

Other woolen goods. , 



METALS AND MINERALS. 

Brass rods, sheets, plates, 

nails, etc 

Iron, galvanized : Wire 



$4,081 
7,184 



8,168 



60,977 
30,651 



3,690 
43,392 



5,294 
23,090 

3,756 
44,786 

8,099 



2,652 
30, 333 
12,443 

23,400 
135,317 

8,357 
50,453 
11,5£9 

5,055 

17,483 
5,206 



254,241 
22,609 
59,424 



5,078 

7, 741 
1,873 
2,115 
4,245 
7,566 



5,546 
4,665 



J5,0S5 
36,291 

8,718 

45, 732 
87, 274 

9,147 

5,545 
31,937 
33,401 



4,837 
24,978 

7,295 
65,252 
10,879 

5,870 

3,110 
35,459 
28,867 

10,949 
204, 690 
28,833 
51,373 
14,925 
12,467 

21,811 
11,254 
11,550 

337, 665 
37, 766 
19, 871 



2,746 

9,815 
3,315 
4,489 
9,575 
3,210 



14,361 
4,722 



Articles. 



METALS AND MINERALS— Con, 

Iron and mild steel: 
New — 

Bars 

Cobbles and wre 

shorts 

Nails and rivets 

Old — Plates and sheets... 

Lead, in pigs and bars 

Quicksilver 

Tin: 

Plates 

Slabs 

SI7NDEIES. 

Aniseed, star 

Bedsteads, iron 

Beche de mer 

Birds' nests 

Buttons, brass and fancy 

Candles 

Cardamoms 

Cement 

Cigarettes 

Cigars 

Clocks and watches 

Clothing, hats, shoes, etc. 

(other than rubber) 

Coal 

Covers, bed and table 

Cutlery and electroplated ware 
Dyes, paints, and colors: 

Mangrove bark 

Sapan wood 

Aniline 

Indigo, artificial and nat 
ural 

Vermilion : 

Paints and paint oil 

Electrical materials 

Enameled ware 

Fans 

Fish and fish products 

Flour: 

American 

Japanese 

Furniture and materials 

Ginseng 

Glass, window 

Glassware 

Glue 

Haberdashery 

Hides, cow and buffalo 

Hosiery 

Instruments, scientific, medi 
cal,etc 



$2,001 

3,352 
6, 582 
5,664 
104,257 
2,297 

18, 185 
82,883 



2,311 
1,838 
103, 753 
9,146 
3,883 

19, 902 
4,039 
2,764 

20,787 
1,965 
5,306 

3,383 

39,460 

1,648 

1,495 

5,247 
1,503 
3,974 

66,055 
4,544 
3,021 

44,819 

9,094 

4,311 

353,982 

99l| 

2,784 
31,072 
8,949 
5,327 
3,179 
1,351 
4,151 
7,367 

7,181 



$2,728 

3,543 
11,019 

2,180 
132, 238 
10,857 

30,550 
211,087 



2,139 
1,643 

65,760 
9,482 

13, 442 

16,333 
4,534 
1,095 

41,427 
1,372 

10, 795 

9,462 

47, 194 

3,330 

1,253 

5,453 
6,881 
3,508 

15,363 

19,986 

■ 9, 791 

74, 941 

5,358 

6,857 

701,913 

4,203 
4,7M 
2,600 
113, 6,54 
17, l67 
7,271 
4,793 
1,515 
14, .502 
31,792 

9,607 



16 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 



Articles. 



SUNDRIES — Continued. 



Isinglass 

Lamps un'l lampwarc 

Leather: 

Imitation, and oilcloth ... 

Manufactures (not includ- 
ing boots, shoes, gloiTS, 

etc.) 

Unmanufactured 

Loo:<ing glasses and mirrors. . 
Machinery: 

Propelling 

Other kinds, and parts ... 
Mschines, sewing, embroi- 
dery, and knitting 

Manures (including chemical 

manures) 

Matches 

Ahits 



Medicines 

Milk, condensed 

Needles 

Oils; 

Engine 

Kerosene — 

American 

Borneo 

Japanese 

Sumatra 

Taper 

Popper, black and white.. 
I'crfumery and cosmetics . 



?4, 075 
12, 246 

1,551 

3,294 
51,104 
3,195 

2,642 
11,236 

3,028 



57, 6S9 

37,395 

15,259 

4,958 



2, 732 

119,450 
lOG, 566 
41,320 
88, 727 
21,547 
9,739 
6,487 



1916 



$15,073 
15, 815 

3, 785 



14,442 
82,300 
3,785 

15,836 
7,630 

2,406 

0, 000 
108, 047 
43,016 
21,430 

6,791 
11,136 

2,390 

6.34,. 503 
126, 51 G 

SO, 849 
173,208 

18,211 
9,934 

14,616 



Articles. 



SUNDRIES— Continue d . 

Photographic materials 

Rattan.^ 

Sandalwood 

Seaweed and agar 

Seeds 

Skin.) (fur) 

Soap: 

Bar 

Toilet and fancy 

Soda 

Stationery (not including pa- 
per) 

Stores, household, n. e. s. .. . 
Sugar: 

Brown 

White 

Reflncd ; 

Candy 

Telegraph and telephone ma- 
terials 

Timber: Hardwood 

Toilet requisites 

Umbrellas, European and 

Japanese, cotton 

VarnLsh 

Water, aerated and mineral. . 

Wax, paraffin 

W'ine,;, etc.: 

Beer iind porter 

Spirits 

Sake 



S2, S02 

22,889 

28,418 

9,926 

7,298 

1,895 

30, S06 
3,015 

18,284 

6,487 
14,074 

36, 175 
195,984 
129,260 

61,096 

1,344 
9,989 
4,223 

16,891 
1,708 
3,872 

27,413 

4,790 
2,183 
3,986 



$2,379 
28,038 
33, 759 
33,258 
15,041 
2,490 

37,232 
3,742 
15,673 

14,659 
25,265 

4,975 

130, 476 

114,623 

66, 869 

5,723 
6, 534 
8, 435 

22, 955 
7,06S 
5,240 

20,315 

9,966 
4,887 
5,613 



Imports of Cotton Goods. 

In a normally good year imports of foreign piece goods amount to 
$500,000, most of the trade being in gray and white plain shirtings, 
drills, jeans. T cloths, chintzes and prints, turkey-red cottons, 
Italians, poplins, and flannel, which are brought in by about 30 
native firms. Imports of Japanese cotton goods continued to increase 
at the expense of American and British lines. Local merchants pur- 
chase most of their wares through Hongkong or KShanghai, and it is 
seldom that orders are placed direct with manufucturers in Europe 
or the United States. American goods are finding much favor and 
more are coming in. 

In gray and white plain shirtings the British article led; the 
Japanese appeared on the local market for the first time. The trade 
in American drills was small ; Japanese outsold British in their 
initial year of competition. In imports of T cloth that of British 
make declined by 50 per cent wdiile Japanese doubled. A somewhat 
better record was made by cambrics, lawns, and muslins, the British 
article predominating in demand. Cotton Italians from Great 
Britain were in fair demand, but trade w^as dull in lenos and bal- 
zarines, lastings, dyed drills, American flannel, and blankets. British 
turkey-red cottons, Venetians, populins, and velvets and velveteens 
sold better in lOlO, as did Japanese cotton cloth and flannel. Im- 
jiorts of British dyed shirtings showed a heavy decline, while those 
from Hongkong more than trebled. Cotton yarn fell by more than 
500,000 pounds. 

Foreign Sundries. 

The imports of sundry foreign goods into Foocliow were smaller 
than the average, which is about $2,000,000. Although many items 
gained in value, the quantity showed a general decrease. Beche de 



CHINA — FOOCHOW. 



17 



mer, chiefly from the Philippines, declined by 50 per cent. Japan 
sent nearly all the brass and fancy buttons imported in 1916. Can- 
dles decreased in both quantity and value; they were chiefly of 
British and Japanese make. The trade in cigarettes, clocks, and 
watches showed some improvement. Imports of artificial indigo 
continued to decline, owing to the large amount of vegetable indigo 
now manufactured in this district. 

The year was favorable for dealers in electrical materials, flour, 
ginseng, window glass, glassware, leather, lamps, condensed milk, 
and needles. More hosiery was received in 1916, the Japanese article 
being most in demand. High freight rates that caused a rise in 
prices affected the sales of kerosene, although better shipping fa- 
cilities lowered quotations later in the year. Imports of American 
oil increased materially. The trade in soap, brown and white sugar, 
and paraffin wax decreased. More household stores were brought in, 
and sales of British and Japanese cotton umbrellas were satisfactory. 

Principal Exports — Shipments to United States. 

The value of the leading articles of export from Foochow during 
1915 and 1916 appears in the following table : 



Articles. 



Bamboo and bamboo ware.. 
Bamboo shoots, dried and 

fresh 

Books, printed 

Camphor : 

Cereals 

Chinaware, coarse and fine... 
Clothing and Chinese boots 

and shoes 

Cordage and hemp 

Curiosities 

Feathers, duck, etc 

Fish and fish products 

Fruits: 

Dried and preserved 

Fresh 

Furniture 

Medicines 

Mushrooms, dried 

Oil: 

Bean, groundnut, tea, 
wood, vegetable, etc.. . 

Camphor 



$42,405 

343,238 
6,231 
4,863 
16,785 

2,867 

5,077 
3,453 
2.969 
7,868 
56, 599 

61.296 
8,902 
17, 077 
46, 623 
86,439 



15, 187 



$56, 798 

542, 910 

4,566 

Z5,530 

38, 634 

2,970 

28, 974 
1,439 

13,849 
6,659 

59, 914 

54,299 
7.437 
32,437 
52, 774 
32, 439 



21,544 
64.935 



Articles. 



Olives, fresh, dried, and 

salted 

Oranges 

Paper 

Potatoes 

Seed cake, tea 

Seeds: Lilv flower 

Tea: 

Black 

Green 

Brick 

Dust 

Timber: 

Planks— 

Hardwood 

Softwood 

Poles 

Tinfoil 

Tobacco, leaf, prepared 

Umbrellas (kittysols) 

Woodenware (not including 
furniture) 



$59,018 
72,712 

868,357 
8.835 
15,705 
10,695 

3,732,998 

823,723 

129,202 

13,898 



9,948 

262,101 

941,760 

13,902 

17,006 

78,382 

8,066 



$112,198 
110,172 
997,916 
16,4.55 
18,. 360 
19,616 

4,297,018 

2.076,776 

110,699 

7,093 



13,899 
336,168 
884,575 

56,109 
9,112 

49,027 

8,617 



Tea is the only important item in the list of declared exports to 
the United States. The values of shipments invoiced at the Foochow 
consulate during 1915 and 1916 were: Curios, $2,824 and $3,015; 
household goods, $8,458 and $377; porcelain Avare, none and $4,246; 
and tea, $383,670 and $569.886 ; total, $394,952 in 1915 and $577,524 
in 1916. Goods valued at $5,365 in 1915 and $878 in 1916 were sent 
to the Philippines; exports to Hawaii in 1916 totaled $108. 

Importance of the Trade in Tea. 

The commercial welfare of Foochow is largely dependent upon its 
export trade in tea, the principal commodity shipped from this port. 
Of the 40,000,000 pounds exported in 1916 more than half consisted 
of black tea consigned to foreign countries. Most of the green tea 
is sent to North China ports for native consumption. Shipments of 
black tea amounted to 25,000,000 pounds, of which 1,500,000 pounds 
went to native ports. The United States took 3,823,000 pounds. 



18 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 

The tea trade Avitli Europe and the United States is controlled by 
ei<>ht local British firms. At the beginning; of 191G there remained 
stocks of about 30,000 half chests of congou, 5,000 of souchong, and 
5o,000 of oolong; there Avas none on hand at the beginning of 1915. 
With the exception of 15,000 half chests of oolong, practically the 
entire stock was cleared off by the end of May. Almost all the oolong 
is shipped to the United States. New teas of the first crop appeared 
in June, the season being late, and the arrivals showed an increased 
yield of 20 per cent over 1915. 

Fine congous and souchongs M'ere sold at from 9 to 10 Foochow 
taels less per picul (133 J pounds) than last year. Little business was 
done in souchongs, owing to the cessation of trade with Germany. 
Later the market dropped considerably, and congous were offered at 
a decline of from 1 to 5 Foochow taels from the opening prices. The 
second crop proved disappointing and the third was a failure. The 
yield of the first and second crops was 50,000 half chests less than 
in 1915. Stocks of pekoes were small. Oolongs always come with 
the third crop; the production was less than 25 per cent of that in 
1915. 

High freight rates and unfavorable exchange handicapped the 
trade to a large extent, but at the end of the season stocks were all 
disposed of, and there was still a demand for common teas at excep- 
tionally high prices. 

The local brick tea factory had less than an average year, its pro- 
duction not exceeding 1,300,000 pounds. As this whole output is 
shipped to Russia, the large stocks held over from 1915 in that 
country were responsible for the decline. The brick tea is packed in 
bamboo crates containing 80 bricks, of a total weiglit of 200 pounds. 

Sawmills Have Good Year — Timber Becoming Scarce. 

Although one of the three local sawmills was destroyed by fire, 
with a loss of $75,000, the past year was fairly satisfactory for the 
others. Shipments of planks to North and South China ports totaled 
7,400,000 square feet, against 7,140,000 in 1915. The number of 
knockdown boxes for kerosene oil cans, tea, soap, and tobacco shipped 
during 1916 was 400,000. Slightly better prices ruled. The timber 
is purchased from dealers who are under agreement to supply a 
prescribed quantity at fixed prices. 

Wooden poles are one of the chief articles of export from Foo- 
chow; the value of those received from the interior in 191G was 
$1,150,000. The 24-inch timber is practically exhausted, and it is 
becoming more difficult to obtain the 18-inch size. Reforestation is 
being considered in the timber-growing districts. 

Shipments of poles to North China declined materially, owing to 
the unsatisfactory trade conditions prevailing there, and high ex- 
change caused a decrease in the export to Formosa. The poles are 
carried chiefly by native junks. 
Manufacture of Paper and Tin Foil. 

The annual production of paper in this district is valued at $1,050,- 
000. None is manufactured in the city of Foochow ; it is made from 
bamboo fiber in the interior sections. The three kinds of native paper 
and the value of the yearly output of each are: Pure white, $500,000; 
a cheap grade of brown, for wrapping and bookbinding, $300,000; 
and a cheap quality of thin brown, for burning at religious cere- 



CHIN-A — FOOCHOW. 19 

monies, $250,000, all of which is sent to northern coast ports. About 
$200,000 worth of the other grades is consumed locally, the remainder 
being exported to other parts of China by native junks. 

Joss paper is an important product of the Foochow district, the 
records of the local joss paper guild showing shipments to northern 
ports valued at $235,000. The local consumption is about $50,000, 
making the total output nearly $300,000. 

The 5G tin foil manufacturers in this district use metal mined in 
Yunnan Province and imported from Hongkong in slabs. During 
1916 the production of tin foil was 440,000 pounds, valued at $320,000. 
About two-thirds of the local output was employed in coating joss 
and other paper products; the rest was sent to neighboring Provinces 
by inland routes. 

Production of Bamboo Shoots, Olives, and Oranges. 

Bamboo shoots are prominent among Foochow's exports; in 1916 
about 6,000 tons were shipped, mostly of the dried variety. About 
660 tons of fresh and 140 tons of smoked shoots were consumed in 
Foochow during the year. The dried shoots sent to Shanghai for 
transshipment are packed in round bamboo crates holding 2 piculs 
(266f pounds) ; those going to Hankow are placed in square crates 
containing 293 pounds. Only a small quantity was shipped to 
Hongkong and other ports in 1916. Winter fresh shoots are ex- 
ported in crates holding 147 pounds. 

The olive crop was good in 1916, the production being 3,100 tons. 
Of the three varieties — -Tanhsuan, Changyin, and Feiyuan — ship- 
ments from the interior were 1,600, 1,200, and 300 tons, respectively. 
Exports from Foochow totaled 2,200 tons and consisted entirely of 
the fresh fruit. Much of the crop was salted and consumed locally. 

Light rainfall caused a heavy decline in the orange crop, and prices 
for the fruit were double those of 1915. The 1916 production, 4,100 
tons, was less than half that of the previous year. About 2,300 tons 
were shipped from the Province. Prices were from $3 to $4.20 
Mexican per picul of 133^ pounds. The oranges are packed in tubs 
of 185 pounds for shipment to North China, and in tubs of 40 pounds 
when sent to southern ports. 

Mushrooms, Native Oils, and Other Exports. 

Owing to the drought the mushroom crop was the smallest in 
years, and 75 per cent below normal, and high prices prevailed. The 
best mushroom, thick in body with curved edges and pure white 
color, came from the Yangkou district and brought $110 Mexican per 
picul of 133-1 pounds. Poorer qualities realized from $50 to $60 
Mexican per picul. All mushrooms are thoroughly dried before 
shipment. 

The production of native oils in this district during 1916 was 
estimated at 3,990,000 pounds. About 800,000 pounds each of tung 
and tea oil were produced ; the former is used for waterproofing cloth 
and paper and in the manufacture of paints and varnishes, and the 
latter chiefly for cooking purposes. Less than 300,000 pounds of the 
output is exported, and the manufacture of these oils has decreased 
in recent years. 

The decline in the demand for horn combs in Singapore and the 
Straits Settlements reduced exports to less than two-thirds of the 



20 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 

1015 figures. The total value of the combs shipped from Foochow 
approximated $12,000, At present 78 shops. employ 1,000 persons 
in this industry. 

The manufacturers of umbrellas (split bamboo and waterproof 
paper) had only a fair year, the quantity produced being about 
1,000,000. They were shipped to the Straits Settlements and to 
Chinese interior points, only a small proportion entering into local 
consumption. The designs supplied were of the usual pattern in 
red, green, and black ; prices of the article ranged from D to 2G cents 
Mexican. 
Salt, Rice, and Sugar Produced in District. 

The production of salt in this Province has shown an annual in- 
crease since the establishment of the district revenue inspectorate 
under foreign supervision. The prolonged dry season in lOlG favored 
a large output, which amounted to nearly 180,000 tons. The j)rice 
paid to the salt producers by the Government ranged from $0.30 
to $1 Mexican per picul of 133.^ pounds; each picul was sold in the 
market for $2.50 Mexican. All the salt produced must be delivered 
to the Government purchasing office. The trade in salt being a 
Government monopoly in China, the sale of the foreign manufac- 
tured product to the native population is forbidden. 

The total rainfall during lOlG, 37.42 inches, against 41.58 inches in 
1915, seriously affected the rice crops. The annual consumption in 
Foochow and the immediate vicinity is G5,700 tons. Much of it 
comes from the up-river districts and is known as " chi " rice. Total 
arrivals from the interior aggregated 38,500 tons. The local product 
is considered of better quality. No rice is exported from Foochow. 

A new agricultural industry has arisen within recent years as a 
consequence of the prohibition of the cultivation of the opium poppy. 
In the district of Hsinghua the poppy has been supplanted by sugar 
cane, and with excellent results. More than 300 tons of Hsinghua 
white sugar and about 930 tons of brown sugar in slabs appeared on 
the local market in 191G. Now that the cultivation of cane and the 
manufacture of sugar have proved profitable, the production is likely 
to increase rapidly, and imports from Hongkong will probably de- 
cline. 

Industrial Concerns — Electric Lights and Telephones. 

Some of the local industrial plants that have recently begun oper- 
ation are a factory for canning fruit, vegetables, and meat products; 
a sugar mill; a glass factory; a match factory; and several con- 
densed-milk factories. The canned-goods factory has so far failed 
to meet expectations, owing to its inability to enter the export trade ; 
the 191G output Avas valued at only $12,500, which scarcely covered 
operating expenses. The sugar mill and the glass and match fac- 
tories suifered from the sharp competition of the foreign-manufac- 
tured articles on the local market. The condensed-milk factories 
operated on a small scale, their combined output reaching but 150.000 
cans, valued at $15,000. 

The number of electric lights now installed in Foochow is 3G,000; 
one-third are under meter control and for the remainder is paid a 
monthly rate per lamp. The high cost of kerosene during 1916 gave 
the company an excellent opportunity to extend its business. Sub- 



CHINA NANKING. 21 

scribers are charged a monthly rate of $1 Mexican per lamp where 
less than 10 lights are installed. When meters are used a charge 
of $0.28 Mexican is made for each unit, with an additional monthly 
charge of $1.50 Mexican for meter hire. During the 3'ear the com- 
pany extended its wires 7 miles to a settlement at the upper stone 
bridge. Profits were estimated at $70,000. A steam turbine of 1,000 
kilowatts was purchased and is being installed. 

The two telephone exchanges in Foochow serve 530 subscribers. 
The limit of the present switchboard capacity has been reached and 
facilities Avill be extended. A recent innovation is the employ- 
ment of English-speaking operators for the convenience of foreign 
subscribers. The iao for the ordinary wall instrument is $60 Mexican 
per annum, and for the desk style $72 Mexican. 

New Roads Stimulate Use of Vehicles. 

The provincial authorities decided to experiment with road con- 
struction along foreign lines and completed in 1916 about 8 miles of 
well-constructed macadam roads, wdth drains and culverts. In less 
than a year 838 rickshas, 90 bicycles, and 48 carriages — modern 
vehicles with rubber tires — were in use. Before this highway con- 
struction there was not a single ricksha, bicycle, or carriage in the 
district, the complete absence of roads excluding them. Even the 
c mservative freight carrier has adopted improved means of trans- 
portation; 14 light 2-wheeled transfer wagons have appeared. 

The first read built was about 4 miles long and skirted the busy 
thoroughfare leading to the walled city. It was well lighted by 
electricity, and Avithin six months land adjoining it was eagerly 
sought by merchants, who quickly realized the trade possibilities in 
the throngs of natives which crowded the highway both clay and 
night. The work of relaying the streets in the Chinese city is pro- 
gressing slowly, and the macadam roads, although very narrow, are 
a decided improvement over the old stone roads which extend for 
many miles w'ithin and without the city walls. 

NANKING. 

By Consul J. Paul Jameson, June 30. 

Since the completion of the Tientsin-Pukow Eailway in 1912 
Nanking, the capital of Kiangsu Province, has become a leading com- 
mercial center of the Yangtze Valley. For the past five years the 
total trade of this port has shown a marked annual increase. 

Rail and Water Transportation Facilities. 

Nanking is situated on the south bank of the Yangtze Eiver about 
200 miles from the Pacific Ocean and is accessible at all times by 
large steamers. This is important in the development of trade with 
foreign countries, as the Yangtze varies so considerably in depth 
that places farther upstream, such as Hankow, can not be reached 
by ocean-going vessels during some seasons of the year. 

Beside this great waterway, which taps the whole of western and 
central China, a number of railways serve Nanking. On the east 
this city is connected with Shanghai by the Shanghai-Nanking 
Railway; on the north, with Tientsin, Peking, and Tsingtau by the 
Tientsin-PukoAV Railwaj^ ; on the west with Hankow by a branch line 
between Hsuchowfu, Kiangsu, and Chenchow, Hunan Province, 



22 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. 

Avhich was opened to traffic in June, 1916; and to the southwest' is 
jiiojected the Ninglisiang Kail way, M'hich will pass through the Prov- 
inces of Kiangsu, Anhwei. Kiangsi. and Hunan, and establish com- 
munication between Nanking and Wuhu, Xanchang, and Changsha. 
Shipping of the Port. 

The lack of diiect steamship lines between Nanking and foreign 
countries is the chief obstacle to the rapid development of this port. 
Most of the exports from the Yangtze Valley are shipped through 
Shanghai, although a few foreign firms carry on a direct trade with 
their own ships. A regular service between Nanking and the United 
States is needed and should be profitable. 

There was an increase in the number^ but a decline in the tonnage 
of the steamers entering and clearing at the port of Nanking in 1916. 
During the year 6,886 vessels, of 7,083,882 tons, were recorded, com- 
pared Avith 4,026, of 7,171,600 tons, in 1915. The principal nation- 
alities represented were : British, 1,910 ships of 3,454,710 tons in 1915 
and 2,178 of 3,330,514 tons in 1916 ; Japanese, 942 of 2,028,494 tons 
and 1,844 of 2,038,736 tons; Chinese, 1,060 of 1,648,994 tons and 2,694 
of 1,680,252 tons; and American, 96 of 18,942 tons and 110 of 37,130 
tons. Sailing vessels entering ^nd clearing in 1916 numbered 7,134 
of 7,105,314 tons, against 4,892 of 7,258,948 tons in 1915. 

The British, Japanese, and Chinese steamers are nearly all river 
boats operated between Shanghai and Hankow via Nanking. There 
were a few ocean steamers among them. The American vessels were 
all river craft. 
Handicaps to American Trade — Statistics Inadequate. 

The two hindrances to American trade in this district are the 
absence of import and export houses and the lack of adequate bank- 
ing facilities. American goods are obta,ined by the Chinese in this 
district from Chinese or American firms in Shanghai, where the 
merchants import directly from the United States. The export of 
Chinese products from this district is also handled by Shanghai firms 
which send native agents throughout this territory to purchase local 
produce and forAvard it to Shanghai, whence it is transported by 
direct steamers to all parts of the world. 

As a result of this indirect commerce, no adequate statistics show- 
ing the trade of Nanking are obtainable. The Chinese Maritime Cus- 
toms at this port keeps a complete record of all goods passing through 
its hands, but this is only a part of the actual trade of Nanking. 
Large quantities of goods imported indirectly into this district are 
listed as imports into Shanghai, where they enter China. The goods 
are shipped from Shanghai to Nanking in most cases through the 
native customs, for Avhich no statis-tics are kept. Similarly exports 
from this district are sent to Shanghai through the native customs, 
which is entirely separate from the Maritime -Customs, and are 
listed as exports from Shanghai, although they came originally from 
Nanking. Under these conclitions, it should be understood that the 
Maritime Customs statistics quoted in this report, the only ones 
available, do not represent the complete trade of Nanking. 

Commerce Increases Despite Adverse Conditions. 

For the fifth successive year the total trade of Nanking set a new 
record for the port, according to the statistics of the Chinese Marl- 



CHINA NANKING, 



23 



time Customs^ in spite of such unfavorable conditions as the high 
value of silver, shortage of tonnage, and excessive freight rates. 

The temporary failure of the local and Shanghai native banks to 
meet their notes Avas another obstacle. The moratorium imposed by 
the Chinese Government on the issuance of notes by the Bank of 
Communications and the Bank of China resulted in the former bank 
closing its doors, and the large number of its notes in circulation 
were temporarily not negotiable. 

The Bank of China continued to meet its obligations with the 
assistance of the foreign banking houses in Shanghai ; but the finan- 
cial difficulties of the native banks in Nanking were a great hindrance 
to trade. 

During the summer months floods in North Kiangsu and Anhwei 
threatened the large agricultural crojis in that region, but the damage 
was not so great as anticipated, owing to the rapid recession of the 
waters, and because some of the crops had already been harvested. 

Nevertheless, the gross trade of Nanking (according to the Mari- 
time Customs statistics) showed a considerable increase, from $13,- 
908,978 in 1915 to $21,006,102 in 1916. The total value of the net 
trade amounted in 1916 to 24,368,001 Haikwan taels ($20,184,016), 
against 22,319,223 taels ($13,659,365) in 1915. The actual increase in 
Chinese currency was only about 2,000,000 taels, but the difference 
in exchange rates for the two years made the gain in United States 
currency more than $6,000,000. 

The customs statistics do not show the correct share of each country 
in the trade of Nanking. They often list imports and exports by 
the flag of the ship carrying the goods, and not by the actual origin 
or destination of the goods. For instance, exports of Chinese goods 
direct to America were given in the customs returns as amounting 
to $103, whereas the invoices from this office for goods actually 
shipped to the United States covered a value of $420,144. 
Summary of Maritime Customs Statistics and Revenues. 

The values of the imports and exports at Nanking through the 
Chinese Maritime Customs during the past two j^ears are summarized 
in the following table: 



Imports and exports. 


1915 


1916 


Imports and exports. 


1915 


1916 


Imports of foreign goods: 
From foreign countries 

and Hongkong 

From Chinese ports 


$345,087 
7,446,068 


$981,842 
9,344,721 


Reexports of Chinese 
products: 
To foreign countries 

and Hongkong 

To Chinese" ports 

Total Chinese 


$70, 101 


C 603, 814 


Total foreign imports. 


7,791,155 


10,326,563 




98, 870 








37,294 
144,961 


639, 831 


Reexports of foreign goods: 
To foreign countries 


Net total Chinese 
imports 




1,353,233 


2,120,938 




Exports of Chinese prod- 
ucts of local origin: 
To foreign countries 

and Uongkong 

To Chinese ports 

Total exports of local 
origin 




To Chinese ports 


150,743 


1,118,998 
3,546,722 




Total foreign re- 


150,743 


182,255 


2,468,799 




5, 449, 971 




7,640,412 


10,144,308 




Net total foreign 
imports 


4,665,720 


7,918,770 




1,452,103 


2,760,769 


Gross value of the trade of 
the port 


13,908,978 


21,006,102 




Net value of the trade of 
the port 




acts 


13,659,365 






20,184,016 









24 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE EEPORTS. 



The revenue collected by the Chinese Maritime Customs at Nan- 
kino- during 1910 was the largest in the records of the poi-t. In 1915 
the'receipts were only $191,36-1, but in 191G they increased to $317,071, 
of Avhich sum more than 50 per cent was derived from duties on 
goods exported under foreign flags and nearly 20 per cent from 
those shipped under the Chinese flag, about 15 per cent from the 
coast trade, less than 10 per cent from imports, and the remainder 
from transit dues. The amounts collected from these sources during 
1915 and 1910 were: Import, $18,774 and $-27,801; export. $141,333 
and $222,097; coast trade, $18,993 and $39,454; tonnage, $1,145 and 
$10,192; and transit, $8,119 and $18,007. The revenue from exports 
was so much greater than that from imports because many imports 
reach Nanking by rail via native customs from Shanghai and are 
entered at that port. 

The rapid rise of Nanking in commercial importance is indicated 
by its progress from thirty-second in 1912 to eighteenth in 1910 in 
revenue collected by the 48 treaty ports of China. 

Import Trade Steady in 1916. 

The values of the principal foreign goods imported into Nanking 
through the Maritime Customs during 1915 and 1910 follow : 



Articles. 



COTTON GOODS. 

Cambrics, lawns, and mus- 
lins 

Chintzes and plain prints 

Drills 

Flannel, plain, dyed, and 

printed 

Italians, Venetians, poplins, 
and lastings, plain: 

Colored 

Fast black (not includ- 
ing poplins) 

Figured 

Jeans, Englishandcther 

Sheetings, gray , plain 

Sliirtings, plain; 

Cray 

White 

T cloths, English and other. . 
Turkey red cottons and dyed 

T cloths 

Yarn, Indian, Japanese, and 

other 

other cotton goods 



METALS. 

Copperingots and slabs. . . 
Iron and mild steel, new: 

Bars 

Nails and rivets 

Pipes and tubes 

other 

Iron, galvanized: Sheets.. 

Tinned plates 

other metals 



Aniseed, star . 
Bags 



$31,467 
74,433 
115,813 

15,367 



68,727 

318, ,5.55 
107,762 
155, 989 
133,915 

448, 229 
290,075 
327, 168 

50,888 

1,924,345 
73, 169 



11,743 

63s 238 
9,541 



26,135 
27,621 
39, 889 
80,827 



7,199 
14,422 



1916 



S13,334 
20,998 
84,703 

14,452 



18, 156 

144,763 

28,518 

156,551 

137, 108 

326, 077 
203, 102 
62, 146 

51,848 

4,014,281 
21, 066 



49, 177 

40,055 
20,601 
28,800 
40,376 
26,258 
60,926 
41,093 



12,317 
37,914 



Articles. 



1915 



SUNDRIES — continued. 



Beche de raer 

Building materials, n. e. s 

Candles 

Cement 

Chemical products, n. e. s 

Cigarettes 

Coal 

Dyes: 

Indigo, artiflcfftl 

other 

Electrical materials 

Crlass, window 

Hides and skins 

I>amps and lampwarc , 

I-eather , 

Machinery , 

Match-making materials 

Matches 

Medicines 

Needles 

Oil: 

Kerosene — American, 
Borneo, and Sumatra. . 

Luliricating 

Paper (including cardboard). 

Pepper, black and white 

Postal parcels 

Railway materials and sup- 
plies: 

Locomotives 

other 

Seaweed and agar 

Soap 

Soda 

Softwood 

Sugar: 

Brown 

White 

Refined 

Candy 



?11,474 



19,094 
33, 174 



749,8.89 
13,756 

458,936 
20,873 
14,358 
10, 733 



13,327 



23, 780 
10,901 
50,309 
7,513 
14,306 



472,299 
11,2(X) 
27, 249 
25, 163 
24,893 



3,485 
14,549 
19,036 
57,671 
19, .547 
23, 930 

119,755 
34.. 535 

274,706 
18,017 



1916 



$16, 202 
89, 159 
34,422 
10,084 
43,922 
1,020,883 
74,045 

19,841 
27,384 
10, 169 
11,950 
79, 721 

8,760 
19,910 
171,158 
44,114 
59,252 
16,394 

2,154 



592, 979 
28, 7.56 
44,077 
46, 293 
16,519 



112,506 
20,037 
44,334 
55,306 
22,899 
29,195 

380,368 
105,148 
854,174 
49, 897 



CHINA NANKING. 25 

The net total value of foreif^n impoi-ts increased by $2,503,896 
on account of the high exchange in 1916 ; the decrease of 237,191 
Haikwan taels is a more accurate measure of the trade during the 
past year. Considering the advanced freight and insurance charges 
and the increased cost of production in many countries, foreign im- 
ports held their position remarkably well, and it should be noted 
that the actual amount of goods brought in was much greater than 
that recorded by the Maritime Customs. The principal imports into 
Nanking are cotton goods, kerosene, sugar, railway materials, cigar- 
ettes, and coal. 
Decreased Imports of Cotton Goods. 

Cotton piece goods comprise the largest item of foreign imports 
into this district, their value in 1916 being more than half the total ; 
the figures were $4,135,902 in 1915 and $5,308,303 in 1916. 

Cotton goods generally showed a decline in 1916, except cotton 
yarn, which increased from 7,588 tons, valued at $1,924,345, in 1915 
to 11,856 tons, $4,014,281, in 1916, of which 9,269 tons came from 
India and 2,561 from Japan. Gray shirtings decreased in value from 
$448,229 in 1915 to $326,677 in 1916. White shirtings declined about 
30 per cent. Sheetings showed a slight increase, with $133,915 in 
1915 and $137,108 in 1916. Drills fell from $115,813 to $84,703 and 
other kinds of piece goods showed similar decreases. 

The trade in cotton piece goods in this district is handled entirely 
by Chinese merchants, who purchase them in Shanghai and ship 
them to Nanlving. 

Trade in Kerosene — Other Imports. 

Imports of kerosene declined from 4,844,120 gallons in 1915 to 
3,635,538 in 1916, but high prices made the value in the latter year 
$120,680 greater. During the early part of 1916 prices advanced 
sharply, owing to the scarcity of shipping caused by the war, and 
the volume of business was much less than in 1915, although toward 
the end of the year the demand increased. American concerns supply 
more than 50 per cent of the kerosene used in this district. It is 
reported that a low-priced Japanese oil is making some headway in 
the northern part of the Province. 

Of the other leading articles imported into Nanking, cigarettes 
decreased from 547,115,000 in 1915 to 229,761,000 in 1916; coal in- 
creased from 3,746 to 14,899 tons ; sugar gained from 8,944 to 14,369 
tons ; and tinned plates cleciined from 506 to 474 tons. 

The principal Chinese goods brought into this port in 1916 were 
cotton drills, sheetings, and yarns; cement, cigarettes, coal, liquid 
indigo, leather, meats, nutgalls, native oils, salt, vegetable tallow, 
and tobacco, with a total value, including other articles, of $2,120,938. 



20 



SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE EEPOKTS. 



Principal Exports from Nanking. 

The qunntit}' and valuo of the lending commodities exported from 
Nanking through the Maritime Customs during the past two years 
were as follows: 



Articles. 



Animals, live 

Beans 

Eggs: 

Aibumon and yolk 

Fresh ixnd preser\-ed . . 

Frozen 

Groundnut kernels 

Meats: 

Fresh or frozen — 

He*f, mutton, etc. 
I'oultry and game. 

Prepared or preserved. 

Seeds: Sesame 

Silk: 

Piece goods 

Raw, yeliow 

All other articles 



Total 4, 665, 720 



1915 



Tons. 



1,028 



4,269 



Value. 



S30, 723 
120,523 



243, 570 



171,411 
272, 2-J9 



394, 742 
142,32.s 



197,541 

,219,257 
393, 209 
,468,111 



Tons. 



a 2, 77S 
6, 801 

1 , ."562 

l.S,'159,0(k) 

3, 30D 

24,011 



6, 6.S1 

1,3.31 

702 

3,992 

165 
62 



Value. 



5181,963 
296,564 

315,795 

103,205 

442, 100 

1,539,024 



735, 635 
173,035 
131,690 
281,089 

1,749,691 

326, 833 

1, 642, 146 



7,918,770 



a Number. 

The indicated increase of $3,253,050 in the total value of exports in 
1916 becomes a gain of 1,936,542 Haikwan taels when expressed in the 
Chinese medium. Nanking's export trade was hampered by unsettled 
local conditions, a temporary scarcity of silver, and lack of tonnage; 
and the amount of gold necessary to purchase Chinese products dis- 
couraged foreign firms from exporting under such unfavorable ex- 
change. The progress made notwithstanding these obstacles portends 
a considc'rable -expansion when normal conditions are restored. 

The declared export return of this consulate represents only a very 
small portion of the shipments from the Nanking district to the 
United States, because most of them are included in the Shanghai 
statement. The only items in 1915 w^ere chinaware, $390, and frozen 
eggs, 2,337,096 pounds, $73,019, totaling $73,409. In 1916 the articles 
Avere: Chinaware, $1,186; frozen eggs, 5,773,944 pounds, $413,369; 
household goods, $470; ox hides, 30,413 pounds, $3,890; lamps, $1,086; 
and art objects, $143 ; total, $420,144. The frozen eggs were exported 
by a British corporation which has a direct line of refrigerator steam- 
ers from Nanking to the United States. Keturned American goods, 
consisting of empty ammonia cylinders, were valued at $10,066 in 
1915 and $12,225 in 1916. No shipments were invoiced for United 
States possessions during the past two years. 



WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1917 






A 00 



« 'N-^*, 



j^-S. DEPOS^TOHY 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 08485 1079